The town was ruled until 1248 by the counts of Andechs-Merania.
Initially, however, their residence and the centre of the territory was the castle of Plassenburg in Kulmbach.
The town of Bayreuth developed slowly and was affected time and again by disasters.
In 1620 plague broke out and, in 1621, there was another big fire in the town.
The town also suffered during the Thirty Years War.
From 1756 to 1763 there was also an Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Roman Catholics were given the right to set up a prayer room and Jewish families settled here again.Bayreuth experienced its Golden Age during the reign (1735–1763) of Margrave Frederick and Margravine Wilhelmina of Bayreuth, the favourite sister of Frederick the Great.During this time, under the direction of court architects, Joseph Saint-Pierre and Carl von Gontard, numerous courtly buildings and attractions were created: the Margravial Opera House with its richly furnished baroque theatre (1744–1748), the New 'Castle' and Sun Temple (1749–1753) at the Hermitage, the New Palace with its courtyard garden (1754 ff) to replace the Old Palace which had burned down through the carelessness of the margrave, and the magnificent row of buildings in today's Friedrichstraße.but was first mentioned in 1194 as Baierrute in a document by Bishop Otto II of Bamberg.The syllable -rute may mean Rodung or "clearing", whilst Baier- indicates immigrants from the Bavarian region.After Christian's death in 1655 his grandson, Christian Ernest, followed him, ruling from 1661 until 1712.